Antiseptic - Wikipedia. Antiseptic(s) (from Greek . Antiseptics are generally distinguished from antibiotics by the latter's ability to be transported through the lymphatic system to destroy bacteria within the body, and from disinfectants, which destroy microorganisms found on non- living objects. Even sterilization may not destroy prions. Some antibiotics.
Microbicides which destroy virus particles are called viricides or antivirals. Usage in surgery. In this paper, Lister advocated the use of carbolic acid (phenol) as a method of ensuring that any germs present were killed. Some of this work was anticipated by: Ancient Greekphysicians. Galen (circa 1. 30. They advocated draining and cleaning wound lips with wine, dressing the wound after suturing it if necessary, and leaving the dressing on for ten days, soaking it in warm wine all the while, before changing it.
Their theories were bitterly opposed by Galenist Guy de Chauliac and others trained in the classical tradition. Specifically, verse 7 states: . These conditions have been studied and dealt with in food preservation and the ancient practice of embalming the dead, which is the earliest known systematic use of antiseptics. In early inquiries before microbes were understood, much emphasis was given to the prevention of putrefaction, and procedures were carried out to determine the amount of agent that must be added to a given solution to prevent the development of pus and putrefaction; however, due to a lack of a developed understanding of germ theory, this method was inaccurate and, today, an antiseptic is judged by its effect on pure cultures of a defined microbe and/or its vegetative and spore forms. The standardization of antiseptics has been implemented in many instances, and a water solution of phenol of a certain fixed strength is now used as the standard to which other antiseptics are compared. The fundamental idea of all anti- pathogenic agents is to exploit a difference between parasite and host. For bacteria, that may involve interfering with their cell walls or internal biochemistry which differs from humans'.
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Pathogens show a total- dose response: if you expose them to a dilute solution for a long time, this is equivalent to dosing them with a strong solution for less time. This makes the pre- industrial medical notion of poultice clear: weaker antiseptics require longer exposure. This is true for many chemical antibiotics as well as heat and UV exposure. Some common antiseptics.
Benzalkonium chloride is used in some preoperative skin disinfectants (0. The antimicrobial activity of quats is inactivated by anionic surfactants, such as soaps. Related disinfectants include chlorhexidine and octenidine. Boric acid is used in suppositories to treat yeast infections of the vagina, in eyewashes, as an antiviral to shorten the duration of cold sore attacks, in creams for burns, and trace amounts in eye contact solutions.
MOU 225-93-4005 Memorandum of. 1976, manufacturers of. If a liquid chemical germicide product contains both sterilant and general purpose disinfectant claims. Product Name on Label: Lystads sterisol germicide - deodorant The EPA Registered Name for this product is: Organo-chlor germicide-deodorant.
Brilliant green is a triarylmethane dye still widely used as 1% ethanol solution in Eastern Europe and ex- USSR countries for treatment of small wounds and abscesses. It is efficient against Gram- positive bacteria. Chlorhexidine gluconate, a biguanidine derivative, is used in concentrations of 0. The microbicidal action is somewhat slow, but remanent.
It is a cationic surfactant, similar to quats. Hydrogen peroxide is used as a 6% (2. Vols) solution to clean and deodorize wounds and ulcers. More commonly, 3% solutions of hydrogen peroxide have been used in household first aid for scrapes, etc. However, the strong oxidization causes scar formation and increases healing time during fetal development. However, concentrations of 1% iodine or less have not been shown to increase healing time and are not otherwise distinguishable from treatment with saline. The great advantage of iodine antiseptics is their wide scope of antimicrobial activity, killing all principal pathogens and, given enough time, even spores, which are considered to be the most difficult form of microorganisms to be inactivated by disinfectants and antiseptics.
Manuka honey is recognized by the FDA as a medical device for use in wounds and burns. Active +1. 5 is equal to a 1. Mercurochrome is not recognized as safe and effective by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to concerns about its mercury content. Other obsolete organomercury antiseptics include bis- (phenylmercuric) monohydrogenborate (Famosept). Octenidine dihydrochloride, a cationic surfactant and bis- (dihydropyridinyl)- decane derivative, is used in concentrations of 0.
It is similar in its action to the quats, but is of somewhat broader spectrum of activity. Octenidine is currently increasingly used in continental Europe as a QAC and chlorhexidine (with respect to its slow action and concerns about the carcinogenic impurity 4- chloroaniline) substitute in water- or alcohol- based skin, mucosa, and wound antiseptic.
In aqueous formulations, it is often potentiated with addition of 2- phenoxyethanol. Phenol is germicidal in strong solution, and inhibitory in weaker ones. Also used in mouthwashes and throat lozenges, it has a painkilling effect, as well as an antiseptic one. Other phenolic antiseptics include historically important, but today rarely used (sometimes in dental surgery) thymol, today obsolete hexachlorophene, still used triclosan, and sodium 3,5- dibromo- 4- hydroxybenzenesulfonate (Dibromol). Polyhexanide (polyhexamethylene biguanide, PHMB) is an antimicrobial compound suitable for clinical use in critically colonized or infected acute and chronic wounds.
The physicochemical action on the bacterial envelope prevents or impedes the development of resistant bacterial strains. Its weak antiseptic effect is due to hyperosmolality of the solution above 0. Sodium hypochlorite was used in the past, diluted, neutralized, and combined with boric acid in Dakin's solution.
Calcium hypochlorite was used by Semmelweis, as . Low concentrations of an antiseptic may encourage growth of a bacterial strain that is resistant to the antiseptic, where a higher concentration of the antiseptic would simply kill the bacteria. In addition, use of an excessively high concentration of an antiseptic may cause tissue damage or slow the process of wound healing. A Greek- English Lexicon. Perseus perseus. tufts. A Greek- English Lexicon.
Perseus perseus. tufts. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. National Institutes of Health nih. Proceedings of the Royal Society. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. International Journal of Food Microbiology.
Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences. Levy)Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (Presentation from the 2.
Emerging Infectious Diseases Conference in Atlanta, Georgia). Symposium on Advanced Wound Care and Wound Healing Society Meeting, Poster LB- 0.