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RMS Lusitania - Wikipedia. Lusitania arriving in port. History. Name: Lusitania.
Owner: Cunard Line. Operator: Cunard Line. Port of registry: Liverpool. Route: Liverpool to New York City. Builder: John Brown & Co, Clydebank, Scotland. Yard number: 3. 67.
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Laid down: 1. 7 August 1. Launched: 7 June 1. Christened: Mary, Lady Inverclyde. Acquired: 2. 6 August 1. Maiden voyage: 7 September 1.
We have a wide variety of nautical antiques such as maritime signs, air horns, rope ladders, telephones, ashtrays, water door wheels and more.
In service: 1. 90. Wreck lies approximately 1. Old Head of Kinsale Lighthouse in 3.
Four direct- acting Parsons steam turbines producing 7. MW). Propulsion: Four triple blade propellers. Crew: 8. 50. Notes: First ship of Cunard's grand trio, along with RMS Mauretania and RMS Aquitania.
RMSLusitania was a British ocean liner that was sunk by a German submarine in World War I, causing a major diplomatic uproar. The ship was a holder of the Blue Riband, and briefly the world's largest passenger ship until the completion of her running mate Mauretania. She was launched by the Cunard Line in 1. North Atlantic trade. She made a total of 2. Atlantic crossings.
Lusitania and Mauretania were fitted with revolutionary new turbine engines, able to maintain a service speed of 2. Equipped with lifts, wireless telegraph and electric light, they provided 5. When RMS Lusitania left New York for Britain on 1 May 1. German submarine warfare was intensifying in the Atlantic.
Germany had declared the seas around the United Kingdom a war zone, and the German embassy in the United States had placed a newspaper advertisement warning people of the dangers of sailing on Lusitania. On the afternoon of 7 May, Lusitania was torpedoed by a German U- Boat, 1. Ireland and inside the declared . A second, unexplained, internal explosion sent her to the bottom in 1.
In firing on what was officially a non- military ship without warning, the Germans were accused of breaching international laws known as the Cruiser Rules. However it was no longer possible for submarines to give warning due to the British introduction of Q- ships in 1. German justifications for treating Lusitania as a naval vessel centered on the fact that the ship was carrying hundreds of tons of war munitions, therefore making it a legitimate military target, and also that British merchant ships had violated the Cruiser Rules from the very beginning of the war. The ship had been fitted with 6- inch gun mounts in 1. The sinking caused a storm of protest in the United States, however, as 1. American citizens were among the dead.
The sinking helped shift public opinion in the United States against Germany, and was a factor in the United States' declaration of war nearly two years later. After World War I, successive British governments maintained there were no munitions on board the Lusitania and the Germans were not justified in treating the ship as a naval vessel. However, in 1. 98. British Foreign Office's North America department admitted that there is a large amount of ammunition in the wreck, some of which is highly dangerous and which poses a safety risk to salvage teams. They had larger, faster, more modern, more luxurious ships than Cunard and were better placed, starting from German ports, to capture the lucrative trade in emigrants leaving Europe for North America. In 1. 89. 7 the NDL liner Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse captured the Blue Riband from Cunard's Campania, before the prize was taken in 1.
HAPAG ship Deutschland. NDL soon wrested the prize back in 1. Kaiser Wilhelm II and Kronprinz Wilhelm. Cunard saw their passenger numbers affected as a result of the so- called . Morgan had decided to invest in transatlantic shipping by creating a new company International Mercantile Marine (IMM), and in 1.
British freight shipper Frederick Leyland & Co. In 1. 90. 2, IMM, NDL, and HAPAG entered into a . The partners also acquired a 5. Dutch Holland America Line. IMM made offers to purchase Cunard which, along with the French CGT, were now their principal rivals. Cunard declined the offer, even though they lacked the financial resources to respond with new ships. Cunard chairman Lord Inverclyde thus approached the British government for assistance.
Faced with the impending collapse of the British liner fleet and the consequent loss of national prestige, as well as the reserve of shipping for war purposes which it represented, they agreed to help. By an agreement signed in June 1. Cunard was given a loan of .
The ships would receive an annual operating subsidy of . In return the ships would be built to Admiralty specifications so that they could be used as auxiliary cruisers in wartime. Lusitania unloading Christmas mail to a post office boat. Cunard established a committee to decide upon the design for the new ships, of which James Bain, Cunard's Marine Superintendent was the chairman. Other members included Rear Admiral H. Oram, who had been involved in designs for turbine powered ships for the navy, and Charles Parsons, whose company Parsons Marine was now producing revolutionary turbine engines. Parsons maintained that he could design engines capable of maintaining a speed of 2.
W). The largest turbine sets built thus far had been of 2. W) for the Dreadnought- class battleships, and 4. W) for Invincible- class battlecruisers, which meant the engines would be of a new, untested design. Turbines offered the advantages of generating less vibration than the reciprocating engines and greater reliability in operation at high speeds, combined with lower fuel consumption. It was agreed that a trial would be made by fitting turbines to Carmania, which was already under construction. The result was a ship 1. Caronia with the expected improvements in passenger comfort and operating economy.
The ship was designed by Leonard Peskett and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. The ship's name was taken from Lusitania, an ancient Roman province on the west of Iberian Peninsula, the region that is now Southern Portugal and Extremadura in Spain. The name had also been used by a previous ship built in 1. Lloyds for Cunard's giant. The original plan called for three propellers, but this was altered to four because it was felt the necessary power could not be transmitted through just three.
Four turbines would drive four separate propellers, with additional reversing turbines to drive the two inboard shafts only. To improve efficiency, the two inboard propellers rotated inwards, while those outboard rotated outwards.
The outboard turbines operated at high pressure; the exhaust steam then passing to those inboard at relatively low pressure. The propellers were driven directly by the turbines, since sufficiently robust gearboxes had not yet been developed, and only became available in 1. Instead, the turbines had to be designed to run at a much lower speed than those normally accepted as being optimum. Thus, the efficiency of the turbines installed was less at low speeds than a conventional reciprocating (piston in cylinder) steam engine, but significantly better when the engines were run at high speed, as was usually the case for an express liner. The ship was fitted with 2. Modifications were made both during, and after the ship's construction.
By 1. 91. 5 the Lifeboat arrangement had been changed to 1. Work to refine the hull shape was conducted in the Admiralty experimental tank at Haslar, Gosport. As a result of experiments, the beam of the ship was increased by 1. The hull immediately in front of the rudder and the balanced rudder itself followed naval design practice to improve the vessel's turning response. The Admiralty contract required that all machinery be below the waterline, where it was considered to be better protected from gunfire, and the aft third of the ship below water was used to house the turbines, the steering motors and four 3. The central half contained four boiler rooms, with the remaining space at the forward end of the ship being reserved for cargo and other storage. Coal bunkers were placed along the length of the ship outboard of the boiler rooms, with a large transverse bunker immediately in front of that most forward (number 1) boiler room.
Apart from convenience ready for use, the coal was considered to provide added protection for the central spaces against attack. At the very front were the chain lockers for the huge anchor chains and ballast tanks to adjust the ship's trim.
The hull space was divided into twelve watertight compartments, any two of which could be flooded without risk of the ship sinking, connected by 3. A critical flaw in the arrangement of the watertight compartments was that sliding doors to the coal bunkers needed to be open to provide a constant feed of coal whilst the ship was operating, and closing these in emergency conditions could be problematic. The ship had a double bottom with the space between divided into separate watertight cells. The ship's exceptional height was due to the six decks of passenger accommodation above the waterline, compared to the customary four decks in existing liners. High tensile steel was used for the ship's plating, as opposed to the more conventional mild steel. This allowed a reduction in plate thickness, reducing weight but still providing 2.
Plates were held together by triple rows of rivets. The ship was heated and cooled throughout by a thermo- tank ventilation system, which used steam driven heat exchangers to warm air to a constant 6. A separate system of exhaust fans removed air from galleys and bathrooms.
As built, the ship conformed fully with Board of Trade safety regulations which required sixteen lifeboats with a capacity of approximately 1,0. At the time of her completion Lusitania was briefly the largest ship ever built, but was eclipsed in this respect by the slightly larger Mauretania which entered service shortly thereafter.
She was 7. 0 feet (2. German liner, Kronprinzessin Cecilie.
Passenger accommodation was 5. Her crew comprised 6.