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Pregnancy - Wikipedia. Pregnancy, also known as gravidity or gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. It usually lasts around 4. LMP) and ends in childbirth. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks following conception, after which, the term fetus is used until birth.
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The first trimester is from week one through 1. Conception is when the sperm fertilizes the egg.
The fertilized egg then travels down the fallopian tube and attaches to the inside of the uterus, where it begins to form the fetus and placenta. Around the middle of the second trimester, movement of the fetus may be felt. At 2. 8 weeks, more than 9. The third trimester is from 2. After 4. 1 weeks, it is known as post term.
Babies born before 3. The number of pregnancies in women ages 1. Common causes include maternal bleeding, complications of abortion, high blood pressure of pregnancy, maternal sepsis, and obstructed labor. Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted. Twins and other multiple births are counted as one pregnancy and birth. A woman who has never been pregnant is referred to as a nulligravida. A woman who is (or has been only) pregnant for the first time is referred to as a primigravida.
In- progress pregnancies, abortions, miscarriages and/ or stillbirths account for parity values being less than the gravida number. In the case of twins, triplets, etc., gravida number and parity value are increased by one only. Women who have never carried a pregnancy achieving more than 2.
This is in contrast to pregnancy complications. Sometimes a symptom that is considered a discomfort can be considered a complication when it is more severe. For example, nausea can be a discomfort (morning sickness), but if, in combination with significant vomiting, it causes water- electrolyte imbalance it is a complication (hyperemesis gravidarum). Common symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy include: Tiredness. Constipation. Pelvic girdle pain. Back pain. Braxton Hicks contractions.
Occasional, irregular, and often painless contractions that occur several times per day. Edema (swelling). Common complaint in advancing pregnancy. Caused by compression of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and pelvic veins by the uterus leads to increased hydrostatic pressure in lower extremities. Increased urinary frequency. A common complaint referred by the gravida, caused by increased intravascular volume, elevated GFR (glomerular filtration rate), and compression of the bladder by the expanding uterus.
Urinary tract infection. Common complaint caused by relaxation of the venous smooth muscle and increased intravascular pressure.
Haemorrhoids (piles). Swollen veins at or inside the anal area. Caused by impaired venous return, straining associated with constipation, or increased intra- abdominal pressure in later pregnancy. Using this date, the resulting fetal age is called the gestational age. This choice was a result of inability to discern the point in time when the actual conception happened. In in vitro fertilisation, gestational age is calculated by days from oocyte retrieval + 1. Fertilization is the event where the egg cell fuses with the male gamete, spermatozoon.
After the point of fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg. The fusion of male and female gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. Fertilization can also occur by assisted reproductive technology such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilisation. Fertilization (conception) is sometimes used as the initiation of pregnancy, with the derived age being termed fertilization age. Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before the next expected menstrual period. A third point in time is also considered by some people to be the true beginning of a pregnancy: This is time of implantation, when the future fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus. This is about a week to ten days after fertilization.
The fertilized egg, known as a zygote, then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 2. Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst.
The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall, a process known as implantation. The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten weeks of gestation. During this time, cells begin to differentiate into the various body systems.
The basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established. By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible.
Also during this time, there is development of structures important to the support of the embryo, including the placenta and umbilical cord. The placenta connects the developing embryo to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply.
The umbilical cord is the connecting cord from the embryo or fetus to the placenta. After about ten weeks of gestational age, the embryo becomes known as a fetus. At the beginning of the fetal stage, the risk of miscarriage decreases sharply. Sex organs begin to appear during the third month of gestation.
The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length, although the majority of the physical growth occurs in the last weeks of pregnancy. Electrical brain activity is first detected between the fifth and sixth week of gestation. It is considered primitive neural activity rather than the beginning of conscious thought. Synapses begin forming at 1.
Retrieved 2. 00. 7- 0. Fetus at 8 weeks after fertilization.
Retrieved 2. 00. 7- 0. Fetus at 1. 8 weeks after fertilization. Retrieved 2. 00. 7- 0.
Fetus at 3. 8 weeks after fertilization. Retrieved 2. 00. 7- 0. Relative size in 1st month (simplified illustration)Relative size in 3rd month (simplified illustration)Relative size in 5th month (simplified illustration)Relative size in 9th month (simplified illustration)Maternal changes. Breast changes as seen during pregnancy. The areolae are larger and darker. During pregnancy, the woman undergoes many physiological changes, which are entirely normal, including cardiovascular, hematologic, metabolic, renal, and respiratory changes.
Increases in blood sugar, breathing, and cardiac output are all required. Levels of progesterone and oestrogens rise continually throughout pregnancy, suppressing the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle. The fetus is genetically different from the woman and can be viewed as an unusually successful allograft. Many symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy like nausea and tender breasts appear in the first trimester. Although the breasts have been developing internally since the beginning of the pregnancy, most of the visible changes appear after this point.
Weeks 1. 3 to 2. 8 of the pregnancy are called the second trimester. Most women feel more energized in this period, and begin to put on weight as the symptoms of morning sickness subside and eventually fade away.
The uterus, the muscular organ that holds the developing fetus, can expand up to 2. Although the fetus begins to move during the first trimester, it is not until the second trimester that movement, often referred to as . This typically happens in the fourth month, more specifically in the 2. It is common for some women not to feel the fetus move until much later. During the second trimester, most women begin to wear maternity clothes. Third trimester. The uterus expands making up a larger and larger portion of the woman's abdomen. At left anterior view with months labeled, at right lateral view labeling the last 4 weeks.
During the final stages of gestation before childbirth the fetus and uterus will drop to a lower position. Final weight gain takes place, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy. The woman's abdomen will transform in shape as it drops due to the fetus turning in a downward position ready for birth.
During the second trimester, the woman's abdomen would have been upright, whereas in the third trimester it will drop down low. The fetus moves regularly, and is felt by the woman.
Fetal movement can become strong and be disruptive to the woman. The woman's navel will sometimes become convex, . It also severely reduces bladder capacity, and increases pressure on the pelvic floor and the rectum. It is also during the third trimester that maternal activity and sleep positions may affect fetal development due to restricted blood flow.
For instance, the enlarged uterus may impede blood flow by compressing the vena cava when lying flat, which is relieved by lying on the left side. In order to have a standard reference point, the normal pregnancy duration is assumed by medical professionals to be 2. The best method of determining gestational age is ultrasound during the first trimester of pregnancy. This is typically accurate within seven days. This calculates the expected due date from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (LMP or LNMP) regardless of factors known to make this inaccurate, such as a shorter or longer menstrual cycle length.
Pregnancy most commonly lasts for 4. LNMP- based method, assuming that the woman has a predictable menstrual cycle length of close to 2. The average time to birth has been estimated to be 2.
A decision may be made to induce labour if a fetus is perceived to be overdue. Furthermore, if ultrasound dating predicts a later due date than LMP, this might indicate slowed fetal growth and require closer review. The stage of pregnancy defined as the beginning of legal fetal viability varies around the world. It sometimes incorporates weight as well as gestational age. While childbirth is widely experienced as painful, some women do report painless labours, while others find that concentrating on the birth helps to quicken labour and lessen the sensations.